Written by Mairi Dupar. Reviewed by: Steve Bass, Georgina Mace, Alessandro Moscuzza and Kate Schreckenberg.

This microsite presents the following report; please use this citation:

ESPA (2018) An environment for wellbeing: Pathways out of poverty – Policy messages from the ESPA programme. Edinburgh: Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation.

ESPA is a programme funded by the Department for International Development (DFID), Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). ESPA is hosted by Research into Results Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary company of the University of Edinburgh, responsible for delivery of research and project management services in the area of international development. The views expressed here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of the ESPA programme, Research into Results, the University of Edinburgh, other partners in the ESPA Directorate, NERC, ESRC or DFID.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

© 2018. Research into Results, a wholly owned subsidiary of the University of Edinburgh.

Design and development: Green Ink (

Image credits

Home page: African girls and women sorting coffee beans, East Africa. © Bartosz Hadyniak/
Executive summary: Mairi Dupar/ESPA; Neil Palmer/CIAT.
Part I: Mairi Dupar/ESPA; Ollivier Girard/CIFOR;
Part II: Tim Cronin/CIFOR; Fish market in Bangladesh. Sailors on boats. Bangladesh, Dhaka. Popova Marina/; Panorama of Semien mountains and valley around Lalibela Ethiopia. HomoCosmicos/; SPDA;
Part III: Jitendra Raj Bajracharya/ICIMOD; Ollivier Girard/CIFOR.


Raworth, K. (2012) ‘A safe and just space for humanity: Can we live within the doughnut?’ Oxfam Discussion Papers. Oxford: Oxfam. Cited by Dearing, J. (2018) ‘Limits and thresholds: Setting global, local and regional safe operating spaces’, chapter 4 in Schreckenberg, K., Mace, G. and Poudyal, M. (eds) Ecosystem services and poverty alleviation: Trade-offs and governance. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge (forthcoming).